The Tesla Model S is an all-electric five-door liftback car, produced by Tesla, Inc., and introduced on June 22, 2012.[10] The EPA official range for the 2017 Model S 100D,[11] which is equipped with a 100 kWh (360 MJ) battery pack, is 335 miles (539 km),[12] higher than any other electric car.[13][14]

The EPA rated the 2017 90D Model S’s energy consumption at 3.096 miles per kWh (200.9 watt-hours per kilometer or 32.33 kWh/100 mi or 20.09 kWh/100 km) for a combined fuel economy of 104 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (2.26 L/100 km or 125 mpgā€‘imp).[15] In 2016, Tesla updated the design of the Model S to closely match that of the Model X. As of January 2019, the following versions are available: 100D and P100D.[16]

In 2013, the Model S became the first electric car to top the monthly new car sales ranking in any country, twice leading in Norway, in September and December 2013[17][18][19][20] and also in Denmark in December 2015.[21] Global Model S sales passed 250,000 units in September 2018.[22][23][24][25] The U.S. is its leading market, with about 140,000 units delivered through December 2018.[26]

The Tesla Model S was the top selling plug-in electric car worldwide in 2015 and 2016,[27][28][29] and by the end of 2018 continued to rank as the second most-sold electric car in history after the Nissan Leaf.[22] The December 2017 Consumer Reports owner satisfaction survey had the Tesla Model S at the top.[30]